This is a general synopsis without going in depth, as all the big stuff is elswhere online and of course the "BKSTS" and "CINEMA TECHNOLOGY" etc.Before we start there are two areas of safety awareness you need to bare in mind before operating a 35mm machine,firstly the sprocket teeth,do not go near them when it is on,it ‘ll tear yer fingers off,secondly watch this video. youtu.be/SVpD8SWzKFMyWhile this clip is a bit Graphic it does illustrate the need to wear goggles. The lamp in the lamphouse is a xenon mercury short arc lamp and can cost between £300 – £1000 each,depending on the kws, and some smaller cinemas have no reason to operate with xenons of no more than 500 – 900 watts.Most are advertised (H) with cable for horizontal fitting.The mercury gas is under forced pressure and can explode on moderate impact, goggles and gauntlets must be worn when changing after permitted hours.I have changed these myself when i had an fp20 and i can assure you that i took my time placing her in the cradle which has alignment adjustment for maximum light efficiency,a rod is used on the cradle and can line up with the centre of the aperture ensuring correct alignment of both lamp and lamphouse simultaneously.Further checks can be done with the white light aswell as test films.The lamp is in front of the dichroic mirror,an allen key is used to attach the connecting cable to the lamp before placing it in.also if striking the lamp for use ,make sure the lamphouse doors are closed,an extremely high voltage races from the rectifier to the ignition system upon a 5 second hold strike,there should be a saftey circuit only allowing lamphouse operation when doors are closed. Be aware of all areas containing open electricity, ie inside the projector door near the A/C Switch, though this should be closed most of the time, and if it still exists there should be a cover over the Transformers and Solenoids. Anyway these are the film projection portholes of the rushden ritz cinema,notice the lamphouse tube louvre ventilation grille outlets.Behind this wall in the projection room lay two 1946 projectors raised up on concrete plinths to gain the correct height for the path of beam above standing headroom.They are coupled to carbon arc peerless magnarc lamphouses,believed to be from the same period.The projectors have been running on white light mono(exciter lamp),with the traditional 21 frame aperture to sound drum separation[or varying dolby ‘a’ type devices],this keeps the image in synchronisation with the sound, reading the stereo variable area(stereophonic analogue soundtrack)also known as sr or spectral recording,taking care of the bottom loop automatically,this twin srereo track is known as ”type a”,accounting for,white light mono,redlight mono,and dolby stereo as well as dolby pro-logic 5.1 surround sound,now in the form of cyan,the earliest version of this 21 frame separation but in single track mono was from rca and westrex sound print films and this theatre inparticular would have run many,however the single white light mono reader will not read the second dolby sr track and sound information may not be heard if it’s a separate stereo downmix,but dual mono would be fine,from a mono mix,of the stereo mix,this way no information is lost,just dual mono with nothing missing. The word "synch"is clearly marked on just about all countdown leaders of film,including trailers,dolby ads etc,and it is possible to use any of these at the beginning of say a full programme of film. This track is often used as an immediate back up track in the event of a failure in theaters with more complex sound systems,like sdds using semetex’s green laser(reading above the aperture and nicnkamed the penthouse reader),dts,and dolby digital.A 21minute 2000ft opening reel in 1.85:1 flat looks cool,with commercials,trailers,dolby ad trailer,no phones,food in foyer,astro daters,and trailers of forthcoming films,with a final 17ft or so of //and now our feature presentation,probably with the dolby trailer spliced to the end with its beginning.etc etc,like mylar black,widen masking thus screen,further curtain position,you could then close the douser on proj 1.i would personally have xenon conversions in this cinema,and have both lamphouses’s ignition struck prior to show start,to avoid a possible throw out . then onto proj 2 and the feature in scope,sometimes sharing the same aperture plate as the academy ratio. In certain circumstances an aperture plate can hide a multitude of sins,ie;boom mics in shot etc,the film frankie and johnny being a good example,this film was screened with a crop from full frame in the 1.85:1 aspect ratio.(If the full frame were projected with the academy aspect aperture plate,the result would be a square,and you would see the mics,and with no masking prepared,or even screen,but the perfect plate for the wizard of oz in its 1.37:1 aspect,it would be the picture behaviour of a typical 16mm machine).when a film cameraman shoots under directions from the director the cameras viewfinder will display a boundary line for both 1.85;1 and 235 aspect ratios,this is so all of the vital scene material fills the 1.85;1 area,while the additional space in the 235 boundary allows less significant elements,but allows a fantastic viewing pleasure for 35mm anamorphic and 70mm prints in 2.20:1. flat ratio. The feature can come from the second machine feeding in from a tower system.All neatly spliced in rack,(keeping frame space distance),the correct way around,(upside down),for the pass through the projector,ensuring optical tracks line up from splice to splice.This method keeps the two different lenses(isco optic ultra star-hd) fixed,without the need to turret with a section of mylar,when changing from flat to scope,while ensuring dowser is closed,so in a way you could assign proj 1 flat and 2 scope.I call the opening reel the dcm or pearl and dean,depending on the distributor,don’t forget it was never just the cinemas and multiplexes receiving prints for continuous projection,television stations and archive centers will have got their batches too,plus of course facilitating companies that either telecine or scan for the purposes of the home market,ie vhs,dvd,hd dvd,and blue ray etc .The theatre is equipped with both 1.85:1 wide,(16:9),lenses and for the 2 x squeeze anamorphic cinemascope lenses,for 2.39:1 aspect with 21:9 projections.So well equipped for all flat hard matted or 1.85:1 prints for flat showings as well as ‘scope prints.Suitable for modern day ks perfs at 24fps,16 frames per foot on the super 35 cinematic film gauge projecting the light through the blades onto the film ink and through the lens,which will flip the image.Mick one of the cinemas last projectionists probably got delivered a case of 6 2000ft sections of film on cores and once on reels switched between projector 1 and 2 until all 6 2000ft reels were screened,using cigarette burns as cue marks at the beginging and ends of reels,these appear in the top right of the image at the time of a changeover,and if done well a patron will not even notice the changeover,you can still very often see these cue marks on your hdtv at home when tv stations screen old classics,or when you play a dvd (digital versatile disc) or blue ray disc.Modern day prints are safe and strong with a polyester base unlike the vintage highly flammable nitrate film stock used many years ago,where the mix of a flammable film and a fire just behind it declined way beyond modern day saftey standards,tragically ending the life or badly burning the projectionist in some cases .Cinemas with old carbon arc lamphouses often get a xenon short arc mercury lamp conversion,this theatre after looking at distance and mass relating to foot lamberts,would benefit a pair of 2 or 3 kw osram lamps,with rectifiers reflecting this,a 16ft lambert reading is a bit of an old smpte standard for 35mm,known as SMPTE 196M,so a bit higher like 25 or 30 may be beneficial,but seek advice ,and don’t forget that some lamphouses can hold lamps up to 10kws,this is for extremely large venues,it’s about reaching the correct ft lamberts to fill the appropriate screen with the right focal length lens in focus,and i would’nt like to stop on a frame with one of these while having the dowser open,for obvious reasons,although there is a mechanism that closes the aperture window upon hitting stop allowing this not to happen.Add something like a dolby cp 650 processor and you are good for dolby digital and 5.1 pro-logic,as far as the sound is concerned you may be able to assign proj 1 ,..your flat 1.85;1 entry reel as dolby 5.1 pro-logic,while proj 2 screens the 21;9 ‘scope feature in dolby digital ,making it a dolby digital ‘scope cinema.70mm is a specialist and very high resolution film gauge, four fold in quality to the 35mm,at least in terms of the distributor prints . The higher cost of stock, cameras and projection systems prevented the formats widespread adoption,and because of this it is now little used,but certainly had its hay day moments,specifically within the larger multiplex situations during the mid eighties onward,and these multiplexes were to some extent built around the long play system,and the projection booths,or corridors which needed to accommodate them.terra firmas strong support of odeon being one example.70mm though was originally first used during the 50s for the screenings of films like oklahoma,the decade that introduced cinemascope,’scope was the film industries measure of bringing people out of their homes and away from their television sets,and the slow move away from the sort of square 1;37.1 aperture and accomodating screen ,to a large extent this worked and a boost of takings at the box office became evident,though the 1.85;1 also known as flat wide was a crop down from the square.Many theaters will only have operated in flat 1.85;1,and the shape of their fixed screens with fixed masking makes this evident,this is all the people that just say ”oxberrys” to it,and it is this 1.85;1 that tv stations send to your 1.85;1 tv set,after a scan,hard matted with black bars or not. The commercial value of an un run feature film is said to be around £1,300 on s35, but these prices were higher in previous years. Once the feature films have been played around a circuit of theaters, many times in each one, the prints then usually meet their fate, probably deemed unsuitable for any further professional use , though whilst watching the Talking Pictures channel on freeview the other day I could have sworn they were using some. With 70mm though a 2.20:1. flat ratio was commonly used and originally magnetic audio tape striping was forged onto the film,allowing for the surround sound to engage.
More recently ”dts” was the modern way for sound with the 70mm film prints,a theatre would receive a dts disc with the incoming film and the prints themselves would have a dts timecode printed onto them,for Synchronization,which is somewhat reminiscent from days of old,when a gramophone record played in rhythm to the projection. Many smaller Art house cinemas or independents will often tandem 35mm with 2k video projection with a suitable Barco unit, this is capable of playing back from many format sources including DVD,HDDVD,BLUE RAY all via HDMI and also DVI connectivity for D cinema, not too mention BNC SDI connectivity for many V;T and other Disc formats, very often a computer screen simulation via D SUB 15 VGA is also possible. In addition or instead of Film recording on a Cinevator 5 you may wish to Burn your video work flow to a Blue Ray disc in Sony Vegas Pro, Adobe Premiere Pro, or Final Cut Pro, this way your videogram will be of high quality projected through the Barco 2k projector or similar, particularly if shot in 4k and edited on a 4k timeline.
Here is a sales card for a recent 70mm projection unit..
A link to an interesting 16mm site..Pauls films
A link to the Wikipedia 16mm site..
an interesting link to a couple of 70mm sites.
the dolby processor….
www.dolby.com/us/en/professional/cinema/products/cp650.html .or quality used, www.ebay.co.uk/itm/DOLBY-CP-650-D-Digital-Analog-Processo… the processor will probably feed from kinoton dolby stereo red light reverse scan readers on the 21 frame separation,at least in this theoretic case of projector 1,or settle for a white or red light mono feed to the processor,with a single female to double male rca phono connection,a bit like these.. www.ebay.co.uk/itm/RCA-Phono-Y-Splitter-Lead-Adapter-1-x-… as there should be a single male hanging out from the photo cell area,but bare in mind the sr track must be dual identical mono,if you are taking from white light .while projector 2 feeds another input to the processor from the dolby digital Cat 701 reader,utilising a separation of its own. Coupled to some crown by harman amps and jbl speakers the sound will be excellent,and with fresh un-run prints the image will be too.
My own Philips/Norelco/Kinoton FP20 35mm Film Projector..
you tube video of 35mm pearl and dean start up..
the screen…….. www.camstage.com/projection-screens-and-frames/cinema-scr…
the jbl speakers….. www.jblpro.com/www/products/Cinema-Market/#.VN7jfOasWuI
some 35mm info on wikipedia… en.wikipedia.org/wiki/35_mm_film
future projections,well known suppliers and fitters of associated equipment…..
bell theater services,well known suppliers and fitters of associated equipment…….
And don’t forget the portable 35mm projector….enter cinemec,the following pdf is a 2.5kw unit for very large long throw projections,matching large cinemas….,this model is a semi portable and can also operate in a permanent setting,with line out sound from the dolby red light reader on the 21 frame separation,which can feed varying sound systems,and tower system for a full programme of film.
—— www.cinemec.it/LX2500ST.pdf ———
Very often two 6 ,000 ft reels is good enough for a full programme of film on these portable units,three including take up,the second take up reel will be from reel one,the first part of the show,just take the empty feed reel thats just played and attach to the take up arm after removing the full take up with the played reel one section onboard,which will need to be rewound from its tail for later shows,and then proceed to lace 6,000ft of reel two, and with an intermission in mid session this is normal practice. As in any other practice all sections of film on these reels will be spliced together in rack in the correct order,and the right way around,as i illustrated earlier,however when operating a mobile unit the make up can be done at home and even checked, so you know everything is ready to go.And count your in rack splices as you go. It can be time consuming correcting out of rack splices,and very tedious,and may leave a bit of a mess on a couple of frames if they were left in after correction,… from a residue of tape glue, which would be visible on the projection screen, so to cut these out and re rack would be the best option,laying frame spaced film over if necessary to use as a guide. So the correct effort first time makes tremendous sense,and is made easier by fresh un run prints with leaders and tails intact,particularly when it states ”splice here”,but while on the subject of fresh ones a good idea may be to 5k scan first before projection,and before quality loss slowly seeps in,under a mixture of constant projection and incorrect relative humidity,ie,storage temperature,exposure to heat and sun etc.causing in some cases fading,colour loss,and warping..,.the scanning process opens up various formats for the film to sit in,including,dvd,blue ray,digi beta,hdcam,hdcam sr,you tube uploads,and various other streaming sites and files…etc. i saw a blackmagic magic ”cintel” scanner the other day,supporting thunderbolt 2 for input to a suitable computer, i’m personally building up a spec for an hp 15 workstation,with the enablement to output thundrbolt 2 to a blackmagic box,and onto hdcam tape; www.blackmagicdesign.com/ca/products/ultrastudiothunderbolt . -a suitable computer – www.ebay.co.uk/itm/151735121322?_trksid=p2060353.m1438.l2… and an appropriate cable –
www.ebay.co.uk/itm/151737699793?_trksid=p2055119.m1438.l2… , A davinci resolve package is also included with the cintel ,and i believe from what i heard that blackmagic bought cintel out. this unit would do the job well,though i think a 4k ceiling. Another positive use would be the negative roll from a 35mm film camera,like an arri 235,infusing and enabling filmmakers to shoot with film in part or in whole,combined with a professional 4K video camera like an aja cion or panasonic varicam,red one,blackmagic ursa e.t.c.,while sound can be captured with a mixture of the video camcorders phantom powered mic on 48v dc and an external device with all synch taking place on ones timeline. Not only can you import Positive and Negative 35mm film , you can also import Positive and negative 16mm film as there are 35mm and 16mm gates, so great for digital archiving and uploading to You Tube etc. While on the subject of the Blackmagic scanner, the s35 gate can be removed and replaced with a 16mm gate, enabling you to scan and upload to you tube all of those perverted films you just purchased on ebay, but be prepared for a "Film Break", many of these prints have not been recently inspected. Anyway with bit of jack roe splicing tape, and a CIR splicer and a bit of splicing knowledge you gained from watching you tube videos it’s rolling,….it’s important to remember when splicing to wear the specific gloves and avoid touching the prints face of frame,handle the edges of the film when you need to manoeuvre it.Also while i’m having a natter I thought I might shed some light on film cleaning and maintenance. Some liquids score higher in professional recommendations than others.At the top is what I believe to be "Filmguard" ,however I opted for another liquid solution in the name of "Isopropanol". This satisfies all my needs before attempting a scan,be it standard 8,super 8,9.5mm,16mm,super 16mm,or indeed s35.The product also doubles up,(in terms of subject that is),as a fully fledged head cleaner for all manner of tape decks,(MAGNETOPHONES). Did you ever wonder why ,when you see a film imperfection on a frame ,you here a rough sound about 1 second later ,answer ;the 21 frame separation .The same thing is witnessed when a poor old fashioned splice passes through the projector or scanner,that IS NOT A "T SPLICE". A T – SPLICE is one of cinemas great breakthroughs ,when a projectionist splices the films together, he/she will not allow the splicing tape to cover the film soundtrack area, resulting in a clean pass through. It may be worthwhile to bare in mind film preservation/restoration/and archiving ,this means if you aquire a print, be it 16mm or 35mm,even 8mm 9.5mm or 70mm ,it would be a good idea to contact the (BRITISH FILM INSTITUTE) BFI, if you are resident in the uk. Some films exist that have not yet shown up for proper national archiving, so once you’ve got your piece from an ebay sale or whatever by all means scan it for your dvd or blue ray collection , and then
call them. It may be that they already have a high quality print of the found film in their possession already, but it’s worth a try. You can also hire films from their massive library. This is the BFI website….
Cinemec LX 1600 – 1.6kw/ 1,600 watts max —- Video of one in home operation…
With all of this said there is a big market for transferring Cine Film to Home consumer digital formats, and that is all around the world, most people want their 8mm , 9.5 ,or 16mm transferring to formats such as Dvd, or Blue Ray disc, here is one of many in the UK offering such a service, some also offer the service for 35mm too, but be careful addressing the subject.
Tagged: , Rushden , cinema